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git cookbook

git 命令

命令 描述
Local Repository
sudo apt-get install git Install git in Linux Ubuntu
git config –global user.name alice Set username as ‘alice’
git config –global user.email abc@gmail.com Set email as ‘abc@gmail.com
git config –global core.editor “vim” Set ‘vim’ as default text-editor
git config –global credential.helper cache Cache username and password
git init Initialize git repository
git status File status i.e. modified and untracked etc.
git add . Add all untracked files
git add -u Add all tracked files and ignore untracked
git add file1 file2 Add (stage) file1 and file2
git rm –cached file1 Remove the staged file file1
git commit -m “commit message” Commit stage file with ‘commit message’
git log Show detail list of commits
git log –oneline Show hash and commit name only
git log –graph Show commits in the form of graph
git log –oneline –graph Show online-commit in the form of graph
git diff Differences between unstaged files and previous commit
git diff –cached Differences between staged files and
git diff –stat Show only changed filenames (not the details)
git reset Remove all files from stage list (i.e. back to modified)
git reset file1 Remove file1 from stage list (i.e. back to modified)
git reset –hard 13802e3 Reset to previous commit with hash 13802e3
git reset HEAD –hard remove all changes after last commit
git reset –merge (git merge –abort) abort current merge, without losing commits
git reset HEAD~1 –soft abort current commit, without losing the changes
git checkout file1 Remove changes from non-staged file1 to previous commit
git rm file1 Delete file1 from git (but available in previous commit
git mv file1 file2 rename file1 to file2
git branch Show all the branches
git branch branch1 Create branch1
git branch -d branch1 Delete branch1
git checkout branch1 Go to branch1
git checkout master Go to master branch
git merge branch1 Merge the brach1 to current branch e.g. master
git checkout 13802e3 Create new branch from previous commit 13802e3
git checkout -b branch1 First checkout and then create branch
Remote repository
git remote add repoName https://url_of_repo Add remote repo with name ‘repoName’
git remote -v Show list of added repoNames
git remote set-url origin git@{new_repo_name}.git change remote repo url to track
git remote remove repoName Remove repoName from list
git push repoName branch1 Push ‘branch1’ to ‘repoName’
git push repoName –all Push all branches to repoName
git clone https://nameOfRemoteRepository Clone or download remote repository
git clone –depth 1 https://nameOfRemoteRepository Clone only last branch
git pull repoName branchName Download and merge ‘branchName’ of repoName
git fetch repoName branchName Download, but not merge repoName

连接远程 repo

Existing folder

cd existing_folder
git init
git remote add origin git@git/remote/repo.git
git add .
git commit -m "Initial commit"
git push -u origin master

Existing Git repository

cd existing_repo
git remote rename origin old-origin
git remote add origin git@git/remote/repo.git
git push -u origin --all
git push -u origin --tags

改变跟踪的远程 repo

如果远程 repo 重命名了,或者想跟踪另一个远程 repo,本地 repo 将无法拉取远程的更新,所以也需要重命名,重命名方法如下

git remote set-url origin git@{new_repo_name}.git

可以使用git remote -v命令来查看修改前后的变化

git merge vs git rebase

  • 相同点:都是用来合并分支
  • 不同点:
    • git merge – 合并时会创建一个新的 commit,专门处理合并;会留下真实的 checkout 历史;git log 历史看起来比较凌乱
    • git rebase – 会改写 commit 历史,将修改附加到待合并分支的最新的 commit 上面;使用 rebase,git log 看起来比较好看;使用时必须谨慎,不能在公共的分支(不止你一人在改的)上做 rebase,因为 rebase 会改写 commit 历史,别人可能还在基于某个历史 commit 在修改

实用技巧

git status 中文显示问题

git status/git log 中文显示为 8 进制编码,如果要正常显示,可使用命令

git config --global core.quotepath false
git config --global gui.encoding utf-8
git config --global i18n.commit.encoding utf-8
git config --global i18n.logoutputencoding utf-8
# bash 环境下
export LESSCHARSET=utf-8
# cmd环境下:
set LESSCHARSET=utf-8

git 重名文件

用 git 管理的文件不能直接右键重命名,否则会被当成删除旧文件再新增一个文件,git 下重命名文件应该用下面的方式

$ git mv file1 file2

将已跟踪文件的变更加入暂存

已跟踪的文件变更加入暂存,忽略未跟踪的文件

$ git add -u

回退操作

场景一:
文件已经 commit,甚至 push,现在希望以后不再跟踪,从远程 repo 中删除,但是本地文件不删除。
首先将文件添加到.gitignore然后执行以下命令。

$ git rm --cached <file-name>
# 支持通配符
$ git rm --cached *.log

如果是文件夹

$ git rm -r --cached directory/

git rm --cached <file-name>会使文件不再被跟踪,但不会删除本地文件;git rm -f <file-name>还会将本地文件都删除掉。

场景二:
文件已经添加到 stage,还未 commit,但暂时不想提交,想从 staged 状态变为 unstaged 状态,文件变更不丢失。

# unstage一个文件
$ git reset HEAD <file-name>
# unstage所有文件
$ git reset HEAD .

场景三:
本地已 commit,但是未 push 到远程,现在想撤销 commit,但变更不丢失,回到 stage 状态

git reset HEAD~1 --soft

场景四:
放弃当前所有变更,回退到上一个 commit 版本

$ git reset --hard

放弃所有变更,回退到指定版本

$ git reset --hard <commit-id>

场景五:
放弃已经 track 的,但是没有在 stage 的文件变更,已经在 stage 的文件保持不变(比git reset --hard要安全)

# 单个文件
$ git checkout -- <file-name>
# 所有文件
$ git checkout -- .

场景六:
取消当前 merge

git 版本 >= 1.6.1

git reset –merge

或者 git 版本 >= 1.7.4

git merge --abort

两者等价

commit msg

git commit 规范

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